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OSHA Regulations

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Misc OSHA Regulations

Subpart 1. Internal combustion engine powered industrial trucks.

The employer shall monitor environmental exposure of employees to carbon monoxide whenever internal combustion engine powered industrial trucks as defined in Code of Federal Regulations, title 29, section 1910.178(a)(1), are operated indoors to ensure that carbon monoxide levels do not exceed those given in Code of Federal Regula- tions, title 29, section 1910.1000, Table Z-1-A. The air monitoring shall be done at least quarterly and represent exposures during a day of highest usage in the areas where employee carbon monoxide exposure is most likely.

Subpart 2. Tailpipe exhaust gas analysis.

The employer shall ensure that powered industrial truck engine exhaust gases do not contain more than one percent carbon monoxide for propane fueled trucks or two percent carbon monoxide for gasoline fueled trucks measured at idle and at three-fourths throttle during final engine tuning in a regular maintenance program.

Seatbelt Regulations

OSHA — Occupational Safety & Health Administration
U.S. Department of Labor
Standard Interpretations
12/11/1996 – Clarification regarding the policy for the use of seat belts on powered industrial trucks in general industry.

OSHA requirements are set by statute, standards and regulations. Our interpretation letters explain these requirements and how they apply to particular circumstances, but they cannot create additional employer obligations. This letter constitutes OSHA’s interpretation of the requirements discussed. Note that our enforcement guidance may be affected by changes to OSHA rules. Also, from time to time we update our guidance in response to new information. To keep apprised of such developments, you can consult OSHA’s website at http://www.osha.gov.

December 11, 1996

Mr. Stuart Flatow
American Trucking Associations
2200 Mill Road
Alexandria, VA 22314-4677

Dear Mr. Flatow:

This is in response to your November 5 letter requesting clarification of the October 9, 1996, memorandum to Regional Administrators regarding the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) enforcement policy for the use of seat belts on powered industrial trucks in general industry. I regret the delay in responding to your inquiry.

Your specific inquiry concerned when and under what conditions OSHA would cite an employer for not taking advantage of the powered industrial truck manufacturer’s operator restraint system or seat belt retrofit program. Generally, OSHA will cite an employer for the lack of seat belt use on powered industrial trucks, when the Agency can document that an employer has been specifically notified and offered a retrofit program by the manufacturer and has not retrofitted an applicable powered industrial truck. OSHA will determine, on a case-by-case basis, whether to cite an employer for not taking advantage of a manufacturer’s seat belt retrofitting program, after consultation with the Regional Solicitor.

Should you have further questions on this response, please contact [the Office of General Industry Enforcement at 202 693-1850].


John B. Miles, Jr., Director
[Directorate of Enforcement Programs]

[Corrected 10/22/2004]

Training Requirements
What does the OSHA standard require?

The standard requires employers to develop and implement a training program based on the general principles of safe truck operation, the types of vehicle(s) being used in the workplace, the hazards of the workplace created by the use of the vehicle(s), and the general safety requirements of the OSHA standard. Trained operators must know how to do the job properly and do it safely as demonstrated by workplace evaluation. Formal (lecture, video, etc.) and practical (demonstration and practical exercises) training must be provided. Employers must also certify that each operator has received the training and evaluate each operator at least once every three years. Prior to operating the truck in the workplace, the employer must evaluate the operator’s performance and determine the operator to be competent to operate a powered industrial truck safely. Refresher training is needed whenever an operator demonstrates a deficiency in the safe operation of the truck. Training shall consist of a combination of formal instruction (e.g., lecture, discussion, interactive computer learning, video tape, written material), practical training (demonstrations performed by the trainer and practical exercises performed by the trainee), and evaluation of the operator’s performance in the workplace. [29 CFR 1910.178(l)(2)(ii)]

Training Program Content

Powered industrial truck operators shall receive initial training in the following topics, except in topics which the employer can demonstrate are not applicable to safe operation of the truck in the employer’s workplace. [29 CFR 1910.178(l)(3)]

Truck-related Topics [29 CFR 1910.178(l)(3)(i)]

• Operating instructions, warnings, and precautions for the types of truck the operator will be authorized to operate.
• Differences between the truck and the automobile.
• Truck controls and instrumentation: where they are located, what they do, and how they work.
• Engine or motor operation.
• Steering and maneuvering.
• Visibility (including restrictions due to loading).
• Fork and attachment adaptation, operation, and use limitations.
• Vehicle capacity.
• Vehicle stability.
• Any vehicle inspection and maintenance that the operator will be required to perform.
• Refueling and/or charging and recharging of batteries.
• Operating limitations.
Workplace-related Topics [29 CFR 1910.178(l)(3)(ii)]

• Surface conditions where the vehicle will be operated.
• Composition of loads to be carried and load stability.
• Load manipulation, stacking, and unstacking.
• Pedestrian traffic in areas where the vehicle will be operated.
• Narrow aisles and other restricted places where the vehicle will be operated.
• Hazardous (classified) locations where the vehicle will be operated.
• Ramps and other sloped surfaces that could affect the vehicle’s stability.
• Closed environments and other areas where insufficient ventilation or poor vehicle maintenance could cause a buildup of carbon monoxide or diesel exhaust.
• Other unique or potentially hazardous environmental conditions in the workplace that could affect safe operation.
If an operator was previously trained in one of these topics, and the training is appropriate to the truck and working conditions encountered, additional training on that topic is not required if the operator has been evaluated and found competent to operate the truck safely.

Trainees may operate a powered industrial truck only:

• Under the direct supervision of persons who have the knowledge, training, and experience to train operators and evaluate their competence.
• Where such operation does not endanger the trainee or other employees.
Refresher training and evaluation: [29 CFR 1910.178(l)(4)]

Refresher training, including an evaluation of the effectiveness of that training, shall be conducted to ensure that the operator has the knowledge and skills needed to operate the powered industrial truck safely. Refresher training in relevant topics shall be provided to the operator when:

• The operator has been observed to operate the vehicle in an unsafe manner.
• The operator has been involved in an accident or near-miss incident.
• The operator has received an evaluation that reveals that the operator is not operating the truck safely.
• The operator is assigned to drive a different type of truck.
• A condition in the workplace changes in a manner that could affect safe operation of the truck.
Each operator’s performance must be evaluated at least once every three years.

Employers must certify that each operator has been trained and evaluated in accordance with the OSHA standard. [29 CFR 1910.178(l)(6)]

The certification must include:

• Operator name.
• Training date.
• Evaluation date.
• Name of person(s) performing the training or evaluation.
Developing Your Own Training Program
Operator being trained on working on a loading dock.
Figure 2. Operator being trained on working on a loading dock.
Before developing your operator training program, you should become familiar with the OSHA standard for powered industrial trucks and any operator’s manuals for the equipment in your workplace.

• Identify the types of powered industrial trucks in your workplace and those employees who will be required to operate the vehicles.
• Identify your training methods.
• Develop the content for your training program.
• Provide for employee evaluation.
• Include refresher training.
It is important to recognize that training, although essential, will not be enough to eliminate accidents. To be most effective, operator training should be part of a larger comprehensive powered industrial truck safety program that includes the following elements:

• Hazard identification and possible solutions.
• Training (of both truck operators and those personnel working near lift trucks) and evaluation of operator competence.
• Supervision (site survey, ongoing hazard assessment).
• Operating procedures (company policies, recordkeeping, safety practices).
• Maintenance and repair procedures.
• Facility design.
• Lift truck selection criteria (equipment survey of truck types, attachments and modifications).
Additional Information:

• Training and Reference Materials – Powered Industrial Trucks provides additional operator training resources.
• Powered Industrial Truck OSHA Safety & Health Topics page includes links to other Safety and Health sites related to powered industrial trucks.


Permanent and removable fuel containers shall be securely mounted to prevent jarring loose, slipping, or rotating, and the fastenings shall be designed and constructed to withstand static loading in any direction equal to twice the weight of the tank and attachments when filled with fuel using a safety factor of not less than four based on the ultimate strength of the material to be used. Field welding, when necessary, shall be made only on saddle plates, lugs or brackets, originally attached to the container by the tank manufacturer.

See full regs here

Part Number: 1910
Part Title: Occupational Safety and Health Standards
Subpart: N
Subpart Title: Materials Handling and Storage
Standard Number: 1910.177
Title: Servicing multi-piece and single piece rim wheels.
Appendix: A, B





This section applies to the servicing of multi-piece and single piece rim wheels used on large vehicles such as trucks, tractors, trailers, buses and off-road machines. It does not apply to the servicing of rim wheels used on automobiles, or on pickup trucks and vans utilizing automobile tires or truck tires designated “LT”.1910.177(a)(2)

This section does not apply to employers and places of employment regulated under the Construction Safety Standards, 29 CFR Part 1926; the Agriculture Standards, 29 CFR Part 1928; the Shipyard Standards, 29 CFR Part 1915; or the Longshoring Standards, 29 CFR Part 1918.


All provisions of this section apply to the servicing of both single piece rim wheels and multi-piece rim wheels unless designated otherwise.



“Barrier” means a fence, wall or other structure or object placed between a single piece rim wheel and an employee during tire inflation, to contain the rim wheel components in the event of the sudden release of the contained air of the single piece rim wheel.

“Charts” means the U. S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration publications entitled “Demounting and Mounting Procedures for Truck/Bus Tires” and “Multi-Piece Rim Wheel Matching Chart,” the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) publications entitled “Demounting and Mounting Procedures for Truck/Bus Tires” and “Multi-Piece Rim Wheel Matching Chart,” or any other poster which contains at least the same instructions, safety precautions and other information contained in the charts that is applicable to the types of wheels being serviced.

“Installing a rim wheel” means the transfer and attachment of an assembled rim wheel onto a vehicle axle hub. “Removing” means the opposite of installing.

“Mounting a tire” means the assembly or putting together of the wheel and tire components to form a rim wheel, including inflation. “Demounting” means the opposite of mounting.

“Multi-piece rim wheel” means the assemblage of a multi-piece wheel with the tire tube and other components.

“Multi-piece wheel” means a vehicle wheel consisting of two or more parts, one of which is a side or locking ring designed to hold the tire on the wheel by interlocking components when the tire is inflated.

“Restraining device” means an apparatus such as a cage, rack, assemblage of bars and other components that will constrain all rim wheel components during an explosive separation of a multi-piece rim wheel, or during the sudden release of the contained air of a single piece rim wheel.

“Rim manual” means a publication containing instructions from the manufacturer or other qualified organization for correct mounting, demounting, maintenance, and safety precautions peculiar to the type of wheel being serviced.

“Rim wheel” means an assemblage of tire, tube and liner (where appropriate), and wheel components.

“Service” or “servicing” means the mounting and demounting of rim wheels, and related activities such as inflating, deflating, installing, removing, and handling.

“Service area” means that part of an employer’s premises used for the servicing of rim wheels, or any other place where an employee services rim wheels.

“Single piece rim wheel” means the assemblage of single piece rim wheel with the tire and other components.

“Single piece wheel” means a vehicle wheel consisting of one part, designed to hold the tire on the wheel when the tire is inflated.

“Trajectory” means any potential path or route that a rim wheel component may travel during an explosive separation, or the sudden release of the pressurized air, or an area at which an airblast from a single piece rim wheel may be released. The trajectory may deviate from paths which are perpendicular to the assembled position of the rim wheel at the time of separation or explosion. (See Appendix A for examples of trajectories.)

“Wheel” means that portion of a rim wheel which provides the method of attachment of the assembly to the axle of a vehicle and also provides the means to contain the inflated portion of the assembly (i.e., the tire and/or tube).


Employee training.


The employer shall provide a program to train all employees who service rim wheels in the hazards involved in servicing those rim wheels and the safety procedures to be followed.



The employer shall assure that no employee services any rim wheel unless the employee has been trained and instructed in correct procedures of servicing the type of wheel being serviced, and in the safe operating procedures described in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section.


Information to be used in the training program shall include, at a minimum, the applicable data contained in the charts (rim manuals) and the contents of this standard.


Where an employer knows or has reason to believe that any of his employees is unable to read and understand the charts or rim manual, the employer shall assure that the employee is instructed concerning the contents of the charts and rim manual in a manner which the employee is able to understand.


The employer shall assure that each employee demonstrates and maintains the ability to service rim wheels safely, including performance of the following tasks:


Demounting of tires (including deflation);


Inspection and identification of the rim wheel components;


Mounting of tires (including inflation with a restraining device or other safeguard required by this section);


Use of the restraining device or barrier, and other equipment required by this section;



Handling of rim wheels;


Inflation of the tire when a single piece rim wheel is mounted on a vehicle;


An understanding of the necessity of standing outside the trajectory both during inflation of the tire and during inspection of the rim wheel following inflation; and


Installation and removal of rim wheels.


The employer shall evaluate each employee’s ability to perform these tasks and to service rim wheels safely, and shall provide additional training as necessary to assure that each employee maintains his or her proficiency.


Tire servicing equipment.


The employer shall furnish a restraining device for inflating tires on multi-piece wheels.


The employer shall provide a restraining device or barrier for inflating tires on single piece wheels unless the rim wheel will be bolted onto a vehicle during inflation.


Restraining devices and barriers shall comply with the following requirements:



Each restraining device or barrier shall have the capacity to withstand the maximum force that would be transferred to it during a rim wheel separation occurring at 150 percent of the maximum tire specification pressure for the type of rim wheel being serviced.


Restraining devices and barriers shall be capable of preventing the rim wheel components from being thrown outside or beyond the device or barrier for any rim wheel positioned within or behind the device;


Restraining devices and barriers shall be visually inspected prior to each day’s use and after any separation of the rim wheel components or sudden release of contained air. Any restraining device or barrier exhibiting damage such as the following defects shall be immediately removed from service:


Cracks at welds;


Cracked or broken components;


Bent or sprung components caused by mishandling, abuse, tire explosion or rim wheel separation;


Pitting of components due to corrosion; or


Other structural damage which would decrease its effectiveness.



Restraining devices or barriers removed from service shall not be returned to service until they are repaired and reinspected. Restraining devices or barriers requiring structural repair such as component replacement or rewelding shall not be returned to service until they are certified by either the manufacturer or a Registered Professional Engineer as meeting the strength requirements of paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section.


The employer shall furnish and assure that an air line assembly consisting of the following components be used for inflating tires:


A clip-on chuck;


An in-line valve with a pressure gauge or a presettable regulator; and


A sufficient length of hose between the clip-on chuck and the in-line valve (if one is used) to allow the employee to stand outside the trajectory.


Current charts or rim manuals containing instructions for the type of wheels being serviced shall be available in the service area.


The employer shall furnish and assure that only tools recommended in the rim manual for the type of wheel being serviced are used to service rim wheels.



Wheel component acceptability.


Multi-piece wheel components shall not be interchanged except as provided in the charts or in the applicable rim manual.


Multi-piece wheel components and single piece wheels shall be inspected prior to assembly. Any wheel or wheel component which is bent out of shape, pitted from corrosion, broken, or cracked shall not be used and shall be marked or tagged unserviceable and removed from the service area. Damaged or leaky valves shall be replaced.


Rim flanges, rim gutters, rings, bead seating surfaces and the bead areas of tires shall be free of any dirt, surface rust, scale or loose or flaked rubber build-up prior to mounting and inflation.


The size (bead diameter and tire/wheel widths) and type of both the tire and the wheel shall be checked for compatibility prior to assembly of the rim wheel.


Safe operating procedure – multi-piece rim wheels. The employer shall establish a safe operating procedure for servicing multi-piece rim wheels and shall assure that employees are instructed in and follow that procedure. The procedure shall include at least the following elements:


Tires shall be completely deflated before demounting by removal of the valve core.



Tires shall be completely deflated by removing the valve core before a rim wheel is removed from the axle in either of the following situations:


When the tire has been driven underinflated at 80% or less of its recommended pressure, or


When there is obvious or suspected damage to the tire or wheel components.


Rubber lubricant shall be applied to bead and rim mating surfaces during assembly of the wheel and inflation of the tire, unless the tire or wheel manufacturer recommends against it.


If a tire on a vehicle is underinflated but has more than 80% of the recommended pressure, the tire may be inflated while the rim wheel is on the vehicle provided remote control inflation equipment is used, and no employees remain in the trajectory during inflation.


Tires shall be inflated outside a restraining device only to a pressure sufficient to force the tire bead onto the rim ledge and create an airtight seal with the tire and bead.


Whenever a rim wheel is in a restraining device the employee shall not rest or lean any part of his body or equipment on or against the restraining device.



After tire inflation, the tire and wheel components shall be inspected while still within the restraining device to make sure that they are properly seated and locked. If further adjustment to the tire or wheel components is necessary, the tire shall be deflated by removal of the valve core before the adjustment is made.


No attempt shall be made to correct the seating of side and lock rings by hammering, striking or forcing the components while the tire is pressurized.


Cracked, broken, bent or otherwise damaged rim components shall not be reworked, welded, brazed, or otherwise heated.


Whenever multi-piece rim wheels are being handled, employees shall stay out of the trajectory unless the employer can demonstrate that performance of the servicing makes the employee’s presence in the trajectory necessary.


No heat shall be applied to a multi-piece wheel or wheel component.


Safe operating procedure-single piece rim wheels. The employer shall establish a safe operating procedure for servicing single piece rim wheels and shall assure that employees are instructed in and follow that procedure. The procedure shall include at least the following elements:


Tires shall be completely deflated by removal of the valve core before demounting.



Mounting and demounting of the tire shall be done only from the narrow ledge side of the wheel. Care shall be taken to avoid damaging the tire beads while mounting tires on wheels. Tires shall be mounted only on compatible wheels of matching bead diameter and width.


Nonflammable rubber lubricant shall be applied to bead and wheel mating surfaces before assembly of the rim wheel, unless the tire or wheel manufacturer recommends against the use of any rubber lubricant.


If a tire changing machine is used, the tire shall be inflated only to the minimum pressure necessary to force the tire bead onto the rim ledge while on the tire changing machine.


If a bead expander is used, it shall be removed before the valve core is installed and as soon as the rim wheel becomes airtight (the tire bead slips onto the bead seat).


Tires may be inflated only when contained within a restraining device, positioned behind a barrier or bolted on the vehicle with the lug nuts fully tightened.


Tires shall not be inflated when any flat, solid surface is in the trajectory and within one foot of the sidewall.


Employees shall stay out of the trajectory when inflating a tire.



Tires shall not be inflated to more than the inflation pressure stamped in the sidewall unless a higher pressure is recommended by the manufacturer.


Tires shall not be inflated above the maximum pressure recommended by the manufacturer to seat the tire bead firmly against the rim flange.


No heat shall be applied to a single piece wheel.


Cracked, broken, bent, or otherwise damaged wheels shall not be reworked, welded, brazed, or otherwise heated.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 52 FR 36026, Sept. 25, 1987; 53 FR 34736, Sept. 8, 1988]